Blooloop https://blooloop.com Museum, Aquarium, Theme Park, Water Park and Zoo professionals Fri, 20 Apr 2018 20:48:10 +0000 en-GB hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=4.9.4 https://d302e0npexowb4.cloudfront.net/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/cropped-favicon-32x32.png Blooloop https://blooloop.com 32 32 What challenges do today’s theme park designers face that the original Walt Disney Imagineers did not? https://blooloop.com/theme-park-design-original-walt-disney-imagineers/?source=newsletter https://blooloop.com/theme-park-design-original-walt-disney-imagineers/#respond Thu, 19 Apr 2018 12:21:05 +0000 https://blooloop.com/?p=169905 In today’s world of risk management, regional codes and trademarks, was theme park design simpler for the original Walt Disney Imagineers? By Eddie Sotto, President of SottoStudios/LA. What challenges do today’s theme designers face that the “old guard” missed out on? Walt’s Original “Imagineers” Ah, that wonderful revisionist past. Walt’s first Imagineering team. How could such legendary […]

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In today’s world of risk management, regional codes and trademarks, was theme park design simpler for the original Walt Disney Imagineers?

By Eddie Sotto, President of SottoStudios/LA.

eddie sotto sottostudios/la artWhat challenges do today’s theme designers face that the “old guard” missed out on?

Walt’s Original “Imagineers”

Ah, that wonderful revisionist past. Walt’s first Imagineering team. How could such legendary projects come from such a small group of talent? Arm waving! That’s it, life without detailed plans, a world of “napkin sketches” you built from. Everyone knew each other, no crossing time zones in conference calls, or filling out scope documents or getting every themed sign cleared by legal. Those were the parks!

Or was it a different time? Some of us in the corporate world of theme parks long for those smaller teams, the simpler path to execution and just having more fun in the business of creating fun. When I look back at the original WED, named for it’s owner Walter Elias Disney, it was that “one layer” to a yes or a no, or as Walt put it, “that’ll work.” That made the process so satisfying (or at least there’s closure.)

original Walt Disney Imagineers theme park design

You knew who and what you were working for and “just do it” was what the boss actually said, versus being a trademark. We might look at the speed at which an entire Tomorrowland, or a Small World ride was conceived, funded and executed (measured in months, not years) and wonder how it all happened so quickly, and that our process must be flawed in some way. The accountants will always say to do it with fewer people and cheaper, and that’s their job. Or was it a different time?

Theme park design and the world of no.

It was…The thing I really pine for is the simplistic cultural environment those Legends worked in. Today we almost have a “perfect storm” of regulation in the form of corporate lawyers known as “risk management” and regional codes that require more rigidly dictated design and infrastructure that fights the ability to convey an escapist environment. Evacuation routes and reach envelopes put the sets further and further away. It is so much harder for today’s designer to immerse the guest and still Walt Disney Imagineering logo serve all of those masters (I did not even breathe the word “budget”,) and yet the guest wants to be wowed in ever more extreme and invasive ways.

To me, this explains the recent rash of attractions heavily dependent on 3D media, motion and 4D theaters, or AR/VR. They seem thrilling, immersive or at times invasive. However, they do not violate “ride envelopes” and other physical safety and regulatory taboos. Motion sickness being the exception. Seems like a win/win, but it’s early in the game.

“Fear minus death equals fun.” The movie.

My question becomes how long will guests be entertained by so many of these media based shows when they know they are just bobbing in front of another screen? VR seems like it still has a way to go with the guest interface. We’ll have to give it time to scale and simplify. Will the guest “sense the format” and grow tired of these shows? It’s funny that when I see today’s action movies, I’m not on the edge of my seat anymore. Because there is so much fiery CGI, the risk to the actor seems diminished. I sense the technology and it changes my sensibility.

The calls we have been getting recently are partially in response to this perceived need. “What will be the next original “wow!” attraction and can you develop it?” From what I hear in the R&D world, the “easy stuff” has been done and real breakthroughs are yet ahead of us. As a result, it will take bigger ideas and more of a hybrid of physical and virtual technologies to give the guest the next great escape. Or maybe we turn it all off and just get real again?

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Themed entertainment’s TEA Summit & Thea Awards 2018 break records at Disneyland https://blooloop.com/tea-summit-thea-awards-2018-report/?source=newsletter https://blooloop.com/tea-summit-thea-awards-2018-report/#respond Tue, 17 Apr 2018 22:16:56 +0000 https://blooloop.com/?p=169839 The annual TEA Summit kicks off a weekend that culminates in the prestigious, black-tie Saturday night Thea Awards Gala. The three-day fixture returned to Disneyland Resort’s Disneyland Hotel in Anaheim, California, from April 5 to 7. And each event drew a record-breaking number of attendees. By Matt Kent (right), Global Business Development, Hotopp Associates. Summit 2018 spanned […]

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The annual TEA Summit kicks off a weekend that culminates in the prestigious, black-tie Saturday night Thea Awards Gala. The three-day fixture returned to Disneyland Resort’s Disneyland Hotel in Anaheim, California, from April 5 to 7. And each event drew a record-breaking number of attendees.

matt kent hotoppBy Matt Kent (right), Global Business Development, Hotopp Associates.

Summit 2018 spanned two days. The first was a TEA members-only peer discussion of industry trends and issues, attended by some 250 delegates. Sessions were presented by the headliners from the current slate of Thea Award recipients including Thea Classic awardee Cedar Point and the 2018 Buzz Price Thea Award lifetime honoree Phil Hettema (pictured above with Pluto).

The keynote conversation with The Hettema Group founder started things off in style, as Phil recounted his career with Thea committee chair Adam Bezark of The Bezark Company. The industry icon gave his peers a glimpse into his early life and extraordinary professional journey. That journey led Phil from Disney’s wardrobe department to college where he learned the art of design, to puppetry, and eventually to overseeing the creation of Universal’s Islands of Adventure.

The TEA Thea Awards 2018

Later forming The Hettema Group, Phil’s work broadened to the creation of emotionally powerful experiences. Among these were projects such as Beyond All Boundaries at the National World War 2 Museum (in which Steven Spielberg was a collaborator) and New York City’s One World Observatory experience. Observing this conversation first-hand was incredibly satisfying, and a great start to the big weekend.

Chimelong group chairman Su Zhigang TEA Jennie Nevin

Chimelong group chairman Su Zhigang with TEA chief operating officer Jennie Nevin

Thea Case Studies Day

We returned to the Disneyland Hotel’s Magic Kingdom Ballroom the next day (April 6) for day two of the Summit, aka Thea Case Studies Day. This focuses solely on the stories of the 2018 award winning projects; a day filled with meaningful conversations and Q&A.

A record-breaking 550 attendees were gathered from all over the world to hear the successes and struggles of the Thea Award recipients. Each project was showcased by a representative of the attraction owner plus one or more members of the creative team.

efteling thea awards 2018 symbolica a (1)

Efteling twins a Thea Award for Symbolica

Projects under the spotlight included Efteling’s newest attraction, Symbolica. This gorgeously stunning dark ride incorporates elaborately detailed show sets and animatronic figures.

Sir Richard Taylor of Weta Workshop moved the audience with his guided tour of the creation of Gallipoli: The Scale of Our War. This larger than life (2.4x to be exact) representation of the terrors of war focuses through the lens of the journals of five actual New Zealand citizens who fought in this tragic battle.

The National Museum of African American History and Culture was also recognised for its excellence in the presentation of its exhibits and architecture, invoking reverence among the audience.

Another engaging presentation saw Chimelong Ocean Kingdom’s Journey of Lights Parade share its challenges of developing technologically advanced system of programmed parade floats under a tight timeframe of just six months.

Disney received the most awards this year of any one operator: for Guardians of the Galaxy – Mission: BREAKOUT!, Pandora – The World of Avatar, AVATAR Flight of Passage and Frozen Ever After. These case studies made for a full and very enlightening day, with excellent presentations given by the Thea Award recipients.

attendees 2018 TEA Thea Awards

The wisdom of Joe Rohde

One of the most interesting takeaways was from Joe Rohde of Walt Disney Imagineering. The design methodology he abided by during the making of Pandora at Disney’s Animal Kingdom was to rapidly prototype the world of Pandora by acknowledging what worked and didn’t work. In design you’re trying to answer questions. You want to answer more of the “right” questions. There are many “wrong” questions that designers ask that spin the overall design off in varying directions, that ultimately drive design. If you’re answering questions in design the right way, then you keep moving forward. The tendency is to redesign, redesign, redesign. Rohde’s succinct explanation of his approach definitely stood out as a point of interest in an extensive day of programming.

Joe Rohde_2018 TEA Thea Awards_Phillip Faraone a (1)

Joe Rohde

International networking

As always, the networking opportunities during this signature TEA event were excellent. They were stimulated by the discussion and the presence of professional colleagues from around the world. And it was also a perfect prelude to the grand evening of celebration that followed on Saturday, April 7. This was when the TEA Thea Awards Gala was presented in true showbiz style in partnership with Chimelong. Accepting his Buzz Price Award from Nancy Seruto of Walt Disney Imagineering, Phil Hettema also delivered a powerful speech. Read it here. And remind yourself of the full list of Thea Award 2018 recipients here. This year’s gala also broke attendance records, with more than 800 people donning either black ties or ball gowns.

EA Thea Awards 2018

Another perk of TEA’s big weekend is the setting. Even as our industry continues to grow globally – a growth reflected by the expanding scope of the Thea Awards and of TEA itself – Disneyland stands as a focal point. Furthermore, the wider Los Angeles area remains a business and creative epicentre of entertainment. The annual pilgrimage to Disneyland Resort to celebrate excellence in themed attraction design was, as always, a treat. In my opinion, it is also a professional imperative.

Images:TEA/Phillip Faraone

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8 reasons why non-attractions are so attractive (or Why do OrangeTheory at 5 am?) https://blooloop.com/attractions-orangetheory-brands/?source=newsletter https://blooloop.com/attractions-orangetheory-brands/#respond Tue, 17 Apr 2018 14:05:57 +0000 https://blooloop.com/?p=169807 I’m a little bit obsessed with something called Orangetheory Fitness. I’m not entirely sure what the theory is, or the hypothesis, for that matter. By Stacey Ludlum, Director of Zoo & Aquarium Planning and Design, PGAV Destinations. I’m actually not the biggest fan of the orange lighting either, but somewhere in that orange morning haze, I get caught […]

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I’m a little bit obsessed with something called Orangetheory Fitness. I’m not entirely sure what the theory is, or the hypothesis, for that matter.

By Stacey LudlumDirector of Zoo & Aquarium Planning and Design, PGAV Destinations.

stacey ludlum zoo designer pgav destinationsI’m actually not the biggest fan of the orange lighting either, but somewhere in that orange morning haze, I get caught up in pushing and going all out, and increasing my weights and watts, and beating my neighbor to the next round of run / row—even though I’m so freaking tired and today I’m just gonna take it easy…

Needless to say, I am the target market for the boutique fitness craze: ambitious, slightly competitive, leading Millennial (okay, fine…Gen Xer), with a few extra dollars burning a hole in my pocket. But what is it about this particular activity that gets me to be so Brand Loyal? Other brands I’m loyal to give me perks like a free chai latte, free hotel nights, or free flights. But Orangetheory doesn’t do that. In fact, it does the opposite—charging me an expensive monthly fee AND an exorbitant fee for no-showing to class. It punishes me, if anything. So what was is it about this brand that has me so hooked, dragging myself out of bed at 4:30am four times a week for a brutally intense work-out?

The ‘other’ compeititors

In our latest Destinology report, “The Fight for Attendance”, we explored the appeal of a few of the major non-traditional competitors that destinations have to battle. We usually think of competition for attractions as other attractions; zoos’ competitive market are other animal attractions within a couple of hours drive, or even nationwide. Museums deal with competition from other museums within a city. We all deal with competition from each other, and from the multitude of play-based attractions like splash pads, mega-playgrounds, and family entertainment centers. But in today’s world, we’re competing against a few others: Sports (which have long been a competitor), Streaming Services, Board Games (and although Destinology didn’t touch on it, Video Games, too), Fitness, and Festivals.

Each of these has their own special characteristics that draw millions of loyal participants. As different as they all are, there are some shared attributes (although some are admittedly contradictory).

1. Community

The most prevalent attribute among these activities is the ability for participants to feel they are part of a community. As disconnected we all feel from time to time (even before we became “more” connected via social media), we are social creatures and we crave time in the company of like-minded others, focused on achieving the same mission. Think about the student sections at a men’s college basketball game! Even today’s festivals are centered around a common theme, be it EDM or mac n’ cheese. It’s fair to assume that anyone in attendance has at least a mild appreciation for the festival topic. Feeling as if you are amongst friends is extremely freeing and oftentimes very relaxing.

2. Value

Value doesn’t mean something is inexpensive. It does mean that it provides a lot for the price. What that means varies from person to person, but usually it includes providing a special experience, or providing a preponderance of extras.

Professional sports suffers from a perception of lack of value. That’s because the ticket price is usually high, but doesn’t include anything extra. A beer is $10, and you’re crammed into a tiny plastic seat with your knees in your chest or in someone’s head and you have to stand up every time someone needs to pee and you drop your jacket or your program and then your team loses. On the flipside, I can buy a board game for the same (or less) price of a single ticket to a ballgame and be able to have a weekly game night with three of my best friends for months on end. And hopefully no one has to get up for me to go pee.

3. Comfort

comfort. Two cats relaxingI’m a big fan of streaming services. Why? Because I can sit on my sofa with my cats, binge-watch House of Cards all weekend, and no one will know unless I tweet about it. That’s comfort. Board games offer a similar level of comfort. Hanging out at home or at your friends’ house in your slippers drinking beer and eating Cheetos has a fairly collegiate nostalgia. And nostalgia is a fuzzy soft bathrobe with matching blankie.

4. Variety

The ability to change your mind, or to legitimize our short attention spans is definitely appealing. Binge-watching is a result of variety. I want to get in, and get out as quickly as possible so I can move onto the next thing. How many times have I seen friends on Facebook ask the greatest question of our generation: “What should I be watching on Netflix that I haven’t already seen?” It is this variety that may be driving the Festival boom as well. Short-term inundation and non-commitment are common themes.

5. Exclusivity

As much as we want to be part of a community, we also want to be unique and special. And if that exclusivity brings a certain value to it, all the better. I am totally willing to spend the extra $100 on VIP admission to a Festival or the Sports game if I get a nice, comfortable place to sit with an incredible view of the action—along with unlimited delicious food and adult beverages, of course!

6. Accomplishment

The feeling of accomplishment should not be underestimated. It is the primary driver for the fitness craze, and likely a motivator for the resurgence of board games. American society is deeply goal-driven, which makes for a whole lot of workaholics, but also makes for a fairly simple to achieve marketing attribute.

7. Control

In this case, were talking about the ability to have what you want, when you want it. It is exemplified with streaming services and other on-demand options. We no longer are a slave to the TV Guide. We are our own publishers of TV. Other on-demand options for consideration at attractions include pre-ordering food for pick up, or online ordering for delivery. Think about that new dine-in theater you love with the big comfy seats and wait staff. Now think about that at your planetarium!

8. Interactivity

Surprisingly, interactivity was not as big of a component with these particular competitors as you may think. Gaming is highly interactive, of course, and the potential for interactivity on streaming platforms is very interesting, but in the big scheme of things, everything we do these days is so interactive (my phone is a…phone?), oftentimes we just want to sit back, relax, and have the thinking done for us. Honestly, that’s definitely one of the reasons I love boutique fitness so much. I don’t want to have to think up a workout, and motivate myself, and actually do the workout all at once. Having someone else plan the workout for me, and yell at me to go harder, allows me to focus on what I need to do: get 45 splat points.

What do we do with all of this information?

One possibility is to simply piggyback on today’s hottest trends. Festivals are a smart solution for many destinations, because they provide temporary peaks in attendance. Zoos have known for quite some time about the value of Halloween and Christmas light events in boosting attendance during the traditionally off-peak season.

However, the addition of other specialty events is a relatively new endeavor. Think strategically about target markets and attendance boosts at lagging times. Keep in mind the growth of the ‘adults without kids’ market at zoos and aquariums, and remember that afterhours events, especially weekend afterhours events featuring live music, food, and alcohol, will appeal to that particular market segment.

What about daytime events? Halloween and Christmas events usually occur on the weekends, but don’t forget about the stay-at-home moms during winter trying to keep little Ricky entertained indoors. Cabin fever gets moms with very young children to come out, even in the cold, so think about strategic events targeting the 0-5 year old market during the weekdays. And if you’re in a cold climate, why not make those events indoors!

Brand theming?

Other ideas include game nights and fitness events at your destination. Theme them to your brand: Dungeons & Sea Dragons has a nice ring to it! Yoga with the Lemurs, or 5k Run like a Cheetah works well, too. What about a binge night watching the latest release of Stranger Things in your invertebrates gallery? Or, better yet, invite the local NFL team for a night of Ballers (double hit with Sports & Streaming)? If you do that one and are able to get the Rock to attend, please be sure to invite me.

Ultimately, understanding the characteristics of popular activities that compete for time with your destination can also help you in the development of new permanent programs and attractions. Many of these characteristics are not new or unique, but may be new and unique to offer in conjunction with your attraction. Keeping it exclusive and creating a community builds loyalty with memberships—why not build some high-end extras into your destination which build that base even more? Luxury welcome center, VIP seating at shows, front of the line access into attractions, maybe even table service at dining areas. Applying the above characteristics to new amenities should improve attendance and build brand loyalty.

I’m also obsessed with beating Felicia at Cyclebar. But that’s for another day.

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Immersive dining: Le Petit Chef, Breaking Bad and a whole new world of eating https://blooloop.com/immersive-dining-petit-chef-restaurant/?source=newsletter https://blooloop.com/immersive-dining-petit-chef-restaurant/#respond Tue, 10 Apr 2018 21:20:48 +0000 https://blooloop.com/?p=169397 Themed restaurants have long been a key element of theme parks across the world. However, today’s eating experiences are powered by storytelling and technology to deliver even more immersive dining. By Ella Baskerville In Disneyland, California, The Blue Bayou imitates southern charm whilst the Pirates of the Caribbean boats glide past as part of the ride. On […]

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Themed restaurants have long been a key element of theme parks across the world. However, today’s eating experiences are powered by storytelling and technology to deliver even more immersive dining.

By Ella Baskerville

In Disneyland, California, The Blue Bayou imitates southern charm whilst the Pirates of the Caribbean boats glide past as part of the ride. On the other side of the US at EPCOT, Walt Disney World in Orlando there are a number of themed restaurants. These serve authentic food and drink from countries across the world and are the backbone of the park. You can sample the hugely popular Food and Wine Festival or attempt to drink around the world (try the frozen martinis in Paris!).

Rollercoaster Restaurant Alton Towers

These restaurants continue the story, offer food appropriate to the theme, and importantly all have high guest throughput. Another example is the Leaky Cauldron at Universal Orlando which caters for an enormous number of guests during peak season with all sorts of English items on the menu (Scotch egg anyone?).

Of course there are the Planet Hollywoods, the Rainforest Cafes and Hard Rock Cafes too. These are like local attractions in every major city in the world. However, to stay ahead, themed dining experiences are adding new concepts to engage guests.

Roller coasters and dungeons

Both Europa Park and Alton Towers have added Roller Coaster Restaurants to their parks. Guests order food on a tablet at the table. Their food then whizzes along roller coaster tracks around the restaurant straight to their table. The meal even completes a loop the loop during the course of the 400m long track. 

Also popular are dinner shows such as the cult favourite Hoop-de-Doo Musical Review at Walt Disney World’s Fort Wilderness. This is a show of singing, dancing and comedy with all you can eat fried chicken too. Another example is the London Dungeons’ Tavern, designed by THEME3, which is part-gift shop, part show, but officially the busiest pub in London.

Tavern London DungeonsA whole new category called immersive dining has opened up. It’s not enough to go to dinner, now you need to be involved in the story – or at least do something that your office co-workers haven’t done yet.

One such dining experience called Dans le Noir allows diners to eat their whole meal in pitch black, served by blind waiters, to allow a greater appreciation for the flavours in a dish.

Immersive dining and technology. And meth

Speakeasy hidden bars within bars are becoming more common (if you get the password correct), as well as unofficially branded bars like ABQ London where you create Breaking Bad-themed cocktails in a caravan using conical flasks and dry ice.

Gingerline are food and theatre enthusiasts based in London. They create a variety of immersive dining experiences, including Juniper Manor, a themed experience in a secret location. This boasts  4 courses, paired with Sipsmith gin cocktails and a series of actors guiding you through the story.

Breaking Bad themed bar ABQ LondonTechnology is now being used to create new dining concepts. Perhaps the most famous, (but also the most extravagant) is Heston Blumenthal’s 17 course tasting menu at The Fat Duck. The experience is based around a journey.  This takes the diner from the sea shore (including a sea shell with headphones to listen to the sea) to a sweet shop complete with personalised sweets.

Projection mapping in dining has taken off in recent years as the quality of the technology has increased and physical size of projectors has decreased. ICONPATH launched their latest Palate product at AAE last year, and new concepts are taking over thoughout the events and dining industry.

Open sauce and le Petit Chef

Dinner Time Story, is a global immersive dining concept. It is a two hour experience that uses high quality projection mapping by Skullmapping, to tell the story of ‘Le Petit Chef’. Guests follow the route of Marco Polo. This takes them from the seaside, to Arabia, to India, to China and back to France for pudding.

The story is projection mapped onto a blank book (and tablecloth) in front of guests. It brings together themed gourmet food and paired cocktails with props and decorations from each location. The concept is growing fast. There are 8 locations in the Middle East, Europe and the US with a ninth opening up in Cairo in 2018. Panasonic projectors were chosen for the project due to their clarity. There is no room for fuzzy images when diners are so close to the action!

Lastly, one unusual dining concept is the Instructables in Amsterdam. This is the first open sourced restaurant  in the world. Diners can leave with instructions to make everything in the restaurant from food to furniture. These are found on instructables.com – a platform for creatives to learn to make nearly anything. Even the instructions for making the Instructable Restaurant itself can be found on the website. I could see this idea working well for the IKEA Museum or Legoland!

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General Data Protection Regulations and the attractions industry https://blooloop.com/general-data-protection-regulations-gdpr/?source=newsletter https://blooloop.com/general-data-protection-regulations-gdpr/#respond Fri, 06 Apr 2018 10:46:43 +0000 https://blooloop.com/?p=169439 Major changes to the rules about the processing of personal data – the General Data Protection Regulations – are due to come into force from 25th May 2018 and these will apply to all EEA countries and companies that conduct business in the EEA.  Despite Brexit, the UK government has confirmed that the UK will […]

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Major changes to the rules about the processing of personal data – the General Data Protection Regulations – are due to come into force from 25th May 2018 and these will apply to all EEA countries and companies that conduct business in the EEA.  Despite Brexit, the UK government has confirmed that the UK will implement GDPR.

Robert_Kluth lorica insurance leisureBy Robert Kluth ACII, Director – Leisure Division, Lorica Insurance

A company that fails to comply with the new rules may be subject to a fine of up to €20 million or four per cent of the company’s global annual turnover, whichever is higher.  Civil claims can also be brought by persons affected by any breach.  So this is something that cannot be ignored.

The new rules update and replace the current data protection rules (the Data Protection Act 1998). They introduce a number of changes which affect businesses and organisations responsible for processing personal data.  If you gather the data for the benefit of your business you are the Data Controller. The data controller is therefore the person (or business) who determines the purposes for which, and the way in which, personal data is processed.

What are the rule changes under GDPR?

So what is personal data?  It is information that relates to a living individual who can be identified by that data, it also extends to data that in isolation couldn’t identify an individual but if combined with other information could identify them.

It includes names, addresses, numbers, location data, online identifiers or one or more factors relating to the physical, physiological, genetic, mental, economic, cultural or social identity of an individual.

As all theme parks, museums and attractions will hold such information on their employees and many gather personal data on their customer so this is an issue the industry cannot ignore.

The new rules include the following changes:-

1. A requirement to report data breaches to the Data Protection regulator, within 72 hours of discovery so that, if relevant, affected individuals can be contacted and appropriate measures can be taken

2.  Individuals will have more access to their own data and how their data is processed

3.  A ‘right to be forgotten’ – individuals have a right to have their personal data erased if there is no compelling reason for its continued processing

4. The conditions for consent have also been strengthened and it must be:

  • “Clear and distinguishable from other matters and provided in an easily accessible form, using clear and plain language”
  • Unambiguous, granular (separate consent for distinct processing operations) and freely given
  • As easy to withdraw as it was to give it
  • Opt out is out! So are pre-ticked boxes. Opt in is in!
  • You must keep clear records to demonstrate consent.

So what do you need to do to get ready for GDPR, as it isn’t that long before it comes into effect in May 2018?

The UK’s Information Commissioner’s Office (ICO) has created a useful checklist of things businesses can do now to prepare and ensure compliance:-

Getting ready for General Data Protection Regulations

1.     Ensure that all decision makers and key people in your organisation are aware of the GDPR – they need to appreciate its impact.

2.     Document what personal data you hold, where it came from and whom you share it with. Also, organise an information audit.

3.     Review your current privacy notices and put a plan in place for making any necessary GDPR changes.

4.     Check your procedures to ensure they cover all the rights individuals have. This should also include how you would delete personal data or provide data electronically and in a commonly used format.

5.     Update your procedures and plan how you will handle requests within the new timescales and provide any extra information.

6.     Look at the various types of data processing you carry out. Then identify your legal basis for doing so and document it.

7.     Review how you are seeking, obtaining and recording consent and whether you need to make any changes.

8.     Think about putting systems in place to verify individuals’ ages and to gather parental or guardian consent for the data processing activity.

9.     Ensure you have the right procedures in place to detect, report and investigate data breaches.

10.  Familiarise yourself with the guidance the ICO has produced on Privacy Impact Assessments. Then work out how and when to implement them.

11.  Designate a data protection officer, if required, or someone to be responsible for data protection compliance, and assess where this role will sit within your structure and governance arrangements.

12.  If you operate internationally, you should also determine which data protection supervisory authority you fall under.

Remember the date

Remember the new General Data Protection Regulations apply from 25th May 2018 to companies conducting business in the European Economic Area, who process personal data.  As a result, if you gather personal data you will be required to ensure that contracts with all processors comply with GDPR and cover any liabilities appropriately.

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Bill Nye the Science Guy and his Upside-Down Pyramid of Design https://blooloop.com/upside-down-pyramid-design-bill-nye/?source=newsletter https://blooloop.com/upside-down-pyramid-design-bill-nye/#respond Tue, 27 Mar 2018 12:33:17 +0000 https://blooloop.com/?p=169107 I am a big fan of Bill Nye (yes, the Science Guy, above left) and recently had an opportunity to hear him speak in Los Angeles. In his new book, Everything All At Once, Nye introduces a process concept that should be part of basic training in the attractions business. He calls it the Upside-Down […]

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I am a big fan of Bill Nye (yes, the Science Guy, above left) and recently had an opportunity to hear him speak in Los Angeles. In his new book, Everything All At Once, Nye introduces a process concept that should be part of basic training in the attractions business. He calls it the Upside-Down Pyramid of Design.

sam gennaweyBy Sam Gennawey (right).

The process is based on a simple idea. Nye said, “If the design is bad, no matter how well everyone else does their job, the result is never going to be any good (or at least ‘never as good as it could be’)”. It is easy to get things almost right.

Nye argues that there is “a constant temptation to stop at the point when things are 90 percent good.” It takes an extraordinary level of commitment and discipline to push all the way through 100 percent. It is just human nature.

Nye’s solution is to put a lot of the energy right up front. “Work it through and be absolutely certain it works on paper before you commit someone else’s time, someone else’s skill, and someone else’s material to a finished part or assembly.” Take time with the design. The more time you set aside to think, the better the created thing will be.Upside-Down Pyramid of Design bill nye a (1)

The Upside-Down Pyramid of Design

Imagine an upside down pyramid. Slicing horizontally through the pyramid are layers which represent a step in the creation of whatever it is you are designing. On the bottom, at the pointy end, is where the design takes place. In this phase, everything you need to consider should be on the table.

This is the point in the process with the fewest people involved, where you have the greatest flexibility, and ultimately is the cheapest step in the process. As you work through the problem, you have the The Upside-Down Pyramid of Design Imagine an upside down pyramid. Slicing horizontally through the pyramid are layers which represent a step in the creation of whatever it is you are designing. On the bottom, at the pointy end, is where the design takes place. In this phase, everything you need to consider should be on the table. This is the point in the process with the fewest people involved, where you have the greatest flexibility, and ultimately is the cheapest step in the process. As you work through the problem, you have the ability to filter through the information and then develop ideas fully in the hypothetical. Through trial and error you can dial in onto the best possible solution or opportunity. When done correctly, this is when great things can happen.ability to filter through the information and then develop ideas fully in the hypothetical. Through trial and error you can dial in onto the best possible solution or opportunity. When done correctly, this is when great things can happen.

As you move upward, comes more people, procurement of raw materials, and the point where you start really spending serious cash. The next level is production. This is when things really get expensive and where things can really go wrong. Unless, you use the Upside-Down Pyramid of Design.

A thorough analysis at the beginning will take into account various scenarios and the project team will already be prepared to deal with any issues. (If you are interested in my primer on Scenario Planning just drop me a note at gennawey@yahoo.com).

Questions during the design phase

To close, Nye suggests asking the following question while in the design phase.

1. Do you honestly believe in the course of action?

2. Does it address a meaningful problem?

3. Does it invite right use?

4. Would it make the world a better place?

5. If it succeeds, will you be proud of it?

6. If it fails, will you have learned something in the process and be glad that you tried?

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The three keys to avoiding cultural clichés in storytelling https://blooloop.com/cultural-entertainment-storytelling-authenticity/?source=newsletter https://blooloop.com/cultural-entertainment-storytelling-authenticity/#respond Tue, 20 Mar 2018 16:04:20 +0000 https://blooloop.com/?p=168722 Compelling entertainment experiences often depend on attracting people using a cultural hook. In China and South East Asia, social storytelling is becoming the standard for entertainment. By James Anderson, Lead Creative Director, FORREC Ltd. We relate to these stories everywhere, on our phone, tablet or laptop. But in the rush to develop stories, it can […]

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Compelling entertainment experiences often depend on attracting people using a cultural hook. In China and South East Asia, social storytelling is becoming the standard for entertainment.

By James Anderson, Lead Creative Director, FORREC Ltd.james anderson forrec

We relate to these stories everywhere, on our phone, tablet or laptop. But in the rush to develop stories, it can be all-too-easy to settle for a clichéd story. I recently spoke at SATE Asia about how critical it is to make your characters relatable and interactive; your settings immersive; and your rides and attractions exciting and engaging. As entertainment designers, we focus on these three touchpoints to drive story development and help avoid the clichés.

1. Authenticity in Character

Characters are the “who” of the story. Think of The Monkey King, a much-used – some might argue, overused – character. Many theme parks, countless attractions and entertainment centres often use him as a quick fix for a story element.

The challenge is the overworked Monkey King brand ends up as a cliché. He is also perceived differently from generation to generation – from action hero to cartoon character. And we all have our own version of the Monkey King living in our heads. No matter how you portray him, someone is going to be left out, scratching their head and thinking: “That’s not the Monkey King!” And that’s not a great place to start.

boy on swing concept art forrec

The focus needs to be on original, relatable characters that are well-rounded and become more fleshed out each time we meet them in a different attraction. These characters can directly interact with the guests.

Younger generations are also looking for characters that they can connect with, are able to understand and reflect their own personalities. They can see themselves in these characters, which acts as a stepping stone into the story.

2. Authenticity in Setting

Stories can be the glue that holds together any entertainment project. As an example, take a retirement community in Florida called The Villages. FORREC was tasked to create an identity for an ever-growing community, one without any centre, and one would say without any heart or soul: so, we designed not one, but three town centers for the community.

One of them is called Spanish Springs (below). The story centers around Ponce de Leon, a Spanish explorer, who accidentally discovered Florida, while looking for gold and the fountain of youth. The spring we designed that percolates up through the town square, was in fact one that Ponce had believed could have been that very fountain.

Forrec - Spanish Springs cultural entertainment storytelling authenticity a

What was so important in getting this right, that unlike a theme park that guests visit for maybe eight hours, one day or so a year, the residents of The Villages would come back every day, all year, for many years – to shop, socialize and even dance in the town square.

While the history and the town was fabricated, it became the backdrop to these people’s lives. It’s because they believed the setting to be authentic, that they could create their own stories, their own memories. Which is exactly what we want to happen in the parks and attractions that we create.

3. Authenticity in Platform

The platform that we use to tell the story can include coasters, theatres, dark rides, round rides and also now virtual or augmented reality. The platforms also are the technology-driven elements that keep us relevant for the current generation.

Coasters over the past few years have added ‘trick elements’ – launches, slip tracks, reverse tracks and so on. These can act as transitions where we can engage the guests in exciting new ways. We now have the ability with coasters to marry excitement and story together.

Dollywood Fire chaser coaster storytelling a

A case in point: our work on Dollywood’s Fire Chaser coaster (above). This was focused on the unsung heroes of the Smokey Mountains. These were the brave people who saved the mountains from all consuming fire. The quick launch at the beginning of the ride tied perfectly in the fire train zooming out if the station, responding to an emergency at Crazy Craig’s Gas and Fireworks Emporium.

When we enter the fireworks loading bay of Crazy Craig, his prized gigantic firework, known as Big Bertha, is in danger or catching fire and blowing us up! It then seems to do so, exploding us backwards in smoke and fire! As a result, the combination of the track profile, engaging storyline and special effects created a memorable experience for all generations.

The Final Elements of Success

Character, setting and platform are the touchpoints of good cultural storytelling. As a result, if you focus on these elements, with authenticity, the chances of having a successful theme park or attraction rise exponentially.

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Disneyland and Universal Studios: genres or single IPs, forest or trees? https://blooloop.com/disneyland-universal-genre-ips/?source=newsletter https://blooloop.com/disneyland-universal-genre-ips/#respond Sat, 17 Mar 2018 19:50:23 +0000 https://blooloop.com/?p=168702 Disneyland and Universal Studios are both hugely successful theme parks. However, is Disney’s Star Wars: Galaxy’s Edge part of a broader trend, as the mouse moves away from genre led to IP focussed design? By Sam Gennawey (right) They are going to charge guests staying at a Walt Disney World resort hotel for parking? It’s the […]

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Disneyland and Universal Studios are both hugely successful theme parks. However, is Disney’s Star Wars: Galaxy’s Edge part of a broader trend, as the mouse moves away from genre led to IP focussed design?

By Sam Gennawey (right)sam gennawey

They are going to charge guests staying at a Walt Disney World resort hotel for parking? It’s the end of the world as we know it.

Okay, maybe I am going a bit far. But, I have spent a lot of mental energy documenting the creative process behind the Disney and Universal theme parks and trying to lock down their DNA. Think of it as the difference between an Android phone and an iPhone.

Disneyland sells the forest, Universal the trees

The two phone operating systems do roughly the same thing but people are emotionally committed to one or the other. It is the same way with theme parks. There is a DNA difference that is slight yet fundamental between the two companies and their approach toward location based entertainment.

Leave it to a top advertising copywriter to nail the difference. Hal Kaufman was working for the advertising firm Foote, Cone & Belding and assigned to the 1990 grand opening of Universal Studios Florida. He described the challenge of going against Disney. What Disney did well was selling the forest. “If one of the Disney parks burnt down tomorrow,” Kaufman said, “They would be able to advertise ‘come feel the warmth’ and people would visit. Universal’s strength was selling the trees; promoting one attraction at a time. Each attraction was marketed like the release of a major motion picture.”

A thing about pirates

My focus is usually on theme park design. Let’s look at Disneyland. The lands are not organized around different IPs (intellectual properties), they are based on timeless entertainment genres. The frontier, adventure, fantasy, cartoons, the future, and the past. The fact that Walt Disney could slap the laminate of a familiar story on one of his rides, would put him light years ahead of his competition.mattherhorn bobsled by elf

After all, how many today remember that the Matterhorn Bobsleds were tied to a movie about a mountain that had no bobsleds? For Walt, I think he was just happy he could hide the ugly metal tower for the sky bucket ride. Heck, he could even stick in rides that had nothing to do with any of his movies. Had a thing about pirates going back to earliest days of the park. Pirates, not a movie but the genre. It worked.

Universal Studios was different. In Los Angeles, its primary local purpose was to be the place you took out-of-towners to see Hollywood because the real Hollywood was kind of scary. Jay Stein had an authentic back lot tour. He figured out pretty quickly that he needed to have one new thing a year to advertise to make it worth the local’s time and skip one of the other Los Angeles diversions. When he started to tap his network of producers he met back in the day when was working on the production side of Universal, he started to link his annual project to a familiar movie or television show. It was cheap. The IP came for free. He usually had to pay off the actors for their likeness. It worked.

The move from genre to IPs

But it is the original Disney park in Anaheim that will now see a fundamental change and that has a lot of people I know talking. Now, let’s take a step back an look at Disney history. The move from genres to single IPs actually started a long time ago. First came EPCOT Center in 1982. Not a big hit. In fact, it was even dragging down the Magic Kingdom. Epcot started with two basic themes. In the front, Ideas are wrapped in provocative architecture with the intent to inspire. In the back, inspiration continues with a make believe tour of the world’s culture organized around a suburban cul-de-sac. Today, is Future World really about ideas? I could argue that the World Showcase is evolving into the new Disney back lot where you get to be involved with characters in their natural environments.

Disney Hollywood Studios started as an MBA’s answer to the upcoming competition from Universal. The same logic for Disney California Adventure. This time the competition was the State of California. Eisner was ambitious. Both parks have changed and now exist without coherent overall themes. Disney Animal Kingdom and Tokyo DisneySea have remained true to themselves and their core themes.

Walt Disney World Star Wars: Galaxy’s Edge themed hotel

Star Wars: Galaxy’s Edge

Even Disneyland has been there. When the Star Wars: Galaxy’s Edge (Star Wars Land) area opens in 2019, it will be the third time that Disneyland has forgone the genre idea and focused on a single IP. The first was Holidayland in 1957. The corporate special events area was just outside the berm. There was a little portal between Holidayland and the park by walking through a tunnel underneath the Disneyland Railroad. The “land” lasted until 1961 when Walt decided he needed the property for his haunted house walk through.

The second was Bear Country in 1972. There was one show from Florida, a shop, and a very long bar. That area soon became filled with other…critters…and became Critter Country. Not really a genre but face it, how many people can name the source material for Splash Mountain? Plus, Winnie the Pooh is across the path. More critters.

The next try will be in 2019. On a lighthearted note, I expect Star Wars: Galaxy’s Edge (Star Wars Land) may be a lot more like Holidayland than people expect at the beginning. Taking advantage of its location outside the berm (i.e. on the other side of the railroad tracks, outside of the park), there are three distinct portals. I don’t think I need to get into any more trouble with Disney officials at this point but imagine the upcharge opportunities.

The addition of Star Wars: Galaxy’s Edge is another example in a long trend.

Collecting the IPs

Long point short. I believe that the design of the Disney parks has moved more toward the Universal model than Universal has moved toward the Disney model. The focus is on the tree. Place it wherever there is room in the forest. Both parent companies are in a battle to collect as many popular culture icons as they can and they have the financial means to do so. At this point, they have file drawers full of IPs to exploit.

For fans, the good news is that the bar has been raised. The competition to see who can create the best highly immersive destination that will drive merchandise sales is on. Remember, Disney Parks is now part of the merchandise division. They are motivated.

The bad news, probably only impacting an old geek like me, is that my beloved Disneyland is moving away from Walt’s basic plan. This was to organize timeless stories by genre, just like a library. Then to allow people to discover the stories, the one they visit and the ones they make up with their own imagination.

Images c Disney, Mattherhorn bobsled Elf.

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How Harrison “Buzz” Price invented the Universal Studios Tour https://blooloop.com/harrison-buzz-price-universal-studios-tour/?source=newsletter https://blooloop.com/harrison-buzz-price-universal-studios-tour/#respond Mon, 12 Mar 2018 14:35:01 +0000 https://blooloop.com/?p=168478 I have written about Harrison “Buzz” Price before. He was best known as the man who found the location for Disneyland, Walt Disney World, and Tokyo Disneyland. He was so important to the theme park industry that the TEA Thea Lifetime Achievement award is named after him. But did you know that Buzz Price invented the […]

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I have written about Harrison “Buzz” Price before. He was best known as the man who found the location for Disneyland, Walt Disney World, and Tokyo Disneyland. He was so important to the theme park industry that the TEA Thea Lifetime Achievement award is named after him. But did you know that Buzz Price invented the Universal Studios Tour?

By Sam Gennawey (right)

sam gennawey Back in 1961, Albert Dorskind brought Price in to determine whether (Universal Studios owner) MCA should get into the industrial tour business. MCA recently purchase Universal City and its 411-acres. Price told Dorskind that tourism was Southern California’s third-largest industry. “Southern California residents and tourists have always maintained an interest in visiting the studios in the area without much opportunity to do so because of restrictions and prohibitions on visitor traffic,” wrote Price.

People were interested in movie and television production and Universal was in a unique position to appeal to this demand. Price noted that over the years the property had “developed into the most extensive and elaborate set complex in Southern California.” He recognized that MCA owned “thematic settings [that] combine to form a fascinating chronology and history of the movie business.” Because no other studio was providing a tour, he figured there would be very little competition. Price was confident that the market was ripe for the type of entertainment Universal could offer.

Analysing the competition

At the time, the biggest player in the brand-new thematic outdoor show business was Disneyland. According to Price, they “revolutionized tourist habits, and established a new approach to showmanship.” What Walt Disney and his design team created was “a radical change from the conventional amusement park, fair, tour or fun zone.” It was “a living stage for a great variety of entertainment and recreation, some old things dressed up, some fantastic new ideas in recreation but all of them done with great taste and showmanship.”

Knott’s Berry Farm in Buena Park was a popular destination. Price said Knott’s success was “built on the quality food products and one family’s interest in the heritage of California.” Located on a magnificent site on the Palos Verde peninsula along the Pacific coast was Marineland. The aquatic park opened in 1954, one year before Disneyland. ERA (the research company found by Buzz in 1958) considered it “basically an aquarium environment but made unique and successful by the high-quality show value of trained mammals performing in a marine theater.” Other popular attractions included Hearst Castle, Griffith Observatory, the San Diego Zoo, Sea World, and Los Angeles’s farmers’ market.universal studios tour poster

Price concluded a successful Hollywood industrial tour would consist of two elements. First, an exhibition of the vast number and different types of sets used in producing movies and television shows. Second, “a visual inspection of the actual techniques used in shooting movies and television scenes.” To achieve the second objective the studio would need to build a special area set aside for tourists and live shows.

Location, location, location!

One of Universal City’s greatest strengths was location. Adjacent to Cahuenga Pass, the studio had direct access to an extensive and growing network of freeways. The Hollywood and Ventura Freeways provided access to the site, and through connections with the Golden State, San Diego, and other freeways, the studio was reachable by all parts of the Los Angeles metropolitan area. It was within 12 minutes driving time from downtown Los Angeles and the Civic Center, 4 minutes from the Hollywood area, and 15 minutes from Beverly Hills and Wilshire Boulevard areas. More than 100,000 cars a day passed by the studio along the Hollywood Freeway.

Price recommended that visitor parking be located at the corner of Lankershim Boulevard and the Hollywood Freeway. Guests would board the tour vehicles at that location. From there, they would be escorted through the back lot, and at the halfway point arrive at the Visitors Center. The recommended location for the Visitor Center was on the Hope property at the intersection of Barham Boulevard and Forest Lawn Drive. This location would not interfere with production or the local residential areas. Dorskind would disregard this recommendation.

He looked at a variety of tour vehicles, including conventional buses, a semi-tractor and a bus trailer, and trams. Conventional buses were ruled out because of the obstructed views. A semi-tractor and a bus trailer were also ruled out for the same reason. Trams had unobstructed views, were quieter than buses, a smaller turning radius, and would be quicker to load and unload. Both diesel and electric trams were considered, but the steep slopes on the property made the electric vehicles impracticable. Therefore, diesel trams won out and would become one of the defining features of the tour.

Harrison “Buzz” Price with Roy Disney

Harrison “Buzz” Price with Roy Disney

Perhaps a little bullish

Price’s recommendation to Dorskind was to invest up to $1 million for site preparation and another $2 million to build a visitor attraction center. The plan called for only one parking lot to avoid confusion on the guests’ behalf. Price assumed that the tour would start in 1965 and concluded that the demand would be large and growing. In fact, he suggested the market potential could be as many as 2.3 million visitors a year, but operational limitations within an active production studio would only allow for a maximum of 1.5 million visitors. He predicted that the tour could draw 800,000 visitors in its first year and that it would increase to 1 to 1.2 million during the second and third years of operation, respectively.

Looking back, Price said, “Actually, we were a little bullish. The tour hit 428,000 in its first year, 750,000 in its second year, and 880,000 in its third year. It did hit 1.2 million 1968.”

King Kong 360 3D courtesy Universal Studios Hollywood.

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The future of Walt Disney World: wise heads and a 1985 masterplan https://blooloop.com/walt-disney-world-future/?source=newsletter https://blooloop.com/walt-disney-world-future/#respond Mon, 05 Mar 2018 16:46:34 +0000 https://blooloop.com/?p=168138 In March 1985, Michael Eisner had not been in charge of Walt Disney Productions for very long when he brought together an esteemed group of men to discuss the future of Walt Disney World. By Sam Gennawey The task was to create a new plan for Walt Disney World. They were not there to create […]

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In March 1985, Michael Eisner had not been in charge of Walt Disney Productions for very long when he brought together an esteemed group of men to discuss the future of Walt Disney World.

By Sam Gennawey

The task was to create a new plan for Walt Disney World. They were not there to create a land-usesam gennawey disney visual contradictions master plan but a way of thinking guided by the broadest possible thinking about Central Florida. Eisner wanted to create a process that avoided the inbred homogeneity that he feared was stalling Disney’s development ideas. His expectation was that this blend of talents would create opportunities that had been overlooked.

Walt Disney World was approximately 28,000-acres with 7,200-acres set aside for conservation purposes and 2,800-acres already developed. A comprehensive study outlined an additional developable 10,000-acres with few constraints. The remaining 8,000-acres could be developed but would require considerable mitigation. A lot of the land use planning was driven by the water management system.

Walt Disney World in 1985

Recall, in 1985 Walt Disney World only had two theme parks; the Magic Kingdom and recently opened EPCOT Center. Additional amenities included the Vacation Kingdom, 2,500-acres of resort hotels, golf courses, and campgrounds. There was also the Walt Disney World Village and Hotel Plaza. Disney had already invested almost $1.775 billion in their property.

Infrastructure concerns included the sewage capacity with efforts already underway to expand the system. In addition, the resort would require all new highway interchanges if it was to keep up with the future. Disney executives also acknowledge that the monorail system was already reaching capacity.

epcot center ticket walt disney world opening

The three-day conference had an ambitious agenda. The first day focused on tours of the Walt Disney World property. The group gathered for a working lunch in the General Motors Conference Center tucked inside of the World of Motion attraction at EPCOT. During the luncheon, Disney executives walked the guests through the basics. These were the physical, environmental, legal, governmental, and economic and marketplace factors influencing the future of the resort.

Brainstorming and forecasting

On the second day, the group rolled up their sleeves and got to work. Chairman of the Executive Committee at Walt Disney Productions Ray Watson – and the man behind the City of Irvine – provided the set up for the first brainstorming session. Architect Michael Graves, Madelyn Hochstein, senior VP of the polling firm Yankelovich, Skelly and White, Carl Hodges of the University of Arizona Environmental Research Laboratory, and Robert Lucky of AT&T Bell Laboratories, joined him. Also in attendance were Futurist John Naisbitt, Thomas Paine, economist Harrison “Buzz” Price, developer James Rouse, and Jacquelin Robertson, dean of the School of Architecture at the University of Virginia.

The observers included Disney executives Richard Benz, Carl Bongirno, Wing Chao, Charles Cobb, Roy E. Disney, Roger Hall, Richard Nunis, Marty Sklar, Frank Wells, and Michael Eisner.

Watson began with the famous EPCOT film starring Walt Disney just six weeks before his death (above). Harrison “Buzz” Price lead a brainstorming session with Chuck Cobb. This documented the group’s views regarding the existing conditions, constraints, and opportunities. Then, each participant was invited to comment on his outlook to the year 2015. Some of the trends forecasted for 2015 included a fracturing of the middle class where people would start to separate into special groups, an aging population, and much greater internationalism. The working lunchtime discussion was, “What we would do at Walt Disney World!”

The final day began where the last day left off. The group reviewed the ideas generated the day before. Then Kalvin Platt and Pete Walker from the SWA Group presented the Walt Disney World Master Plan. They reviewed the current slate of proposed real estate products and the marketing and development strategies. That lead to a follow-up “What we would do at Walt Disney World!” discussion.

So what transpired?

What came of this event? A lot. It would not be long before Disney began building thousands of new hotel rooms to fill the demand that they created. The expansion of the Disney Village shopping center was a result of this conference. In addition, the Disney Parks and Resorts Division reliance on timeshares was another outcome.

One thing that did not happen was the development of a state-of-the-art industrial and commercial office park. The addition of industry to the Walt Disney World property would have been financially successful. It would also have been true to the spirit of Walt Disney’s original concept for EPCOT. As a result, Walt Disney World could have been known as, “the technology center of the future.”

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